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Tom Gunning, « Phantasmagoria and the Manufacturing of Illusions and Wonder: Towards a Cultural Optics of the Cinematic Apparatus », dans The Cinema, a New Technology for the 20th Century, par André Gaudreault, Catherine Russell et Pierre Veronneau (Lausanne: Payot, 2004), 31‑44.

Tom Gunning, « Uncanny Reflections, Modern Illusions: Sighting the Modern Optical Uncanny », dans Uncanny Modernity: Cultural Theories, Modern Anxieties, par Jo Collins et John Jervis (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2008), 68‑90, DOI: 10.1057/9780230582828_4.

Tom Gunning, « Invisible Worlds, Visible Media », dans Brought to Light: Photography and the Invisible 1840-1900, par Corey Keller (San Fransisco: San Fransisco Museum of Modern Art in association with Yale University Press, 2008), 51‑63.

Tom Gunning, « Mechanism of Laughter: The Devices of Slapstick », dans Slapstick Comedy, par Tom Paulus et Rob King, AFI film readers (New-York/London: Routledge, 2010), 137‑51.

Tom Gunning, « What’s the Point of an Index? Or Faking Photographs », dans Still/Moving: Between Cinema and Photography, par Karen Beckman et Jean Ma (Durham: Duke University Press, 2008), 23‑40.

Tom Gunning, « The “Arrested Instant” Between Stillness and Motion », dans Between Still and Moving Images, par Olivier Lugon et Laurent Guido (New Barnet: John Libbey Publishing, 2012), 23‑31.

Tom Gunning, « A Trip to the Moon: Lunar Illumination », dans Film Analysis: A Norton Reader, par Jeffrey Geiger et R.L. Rutsky (New-York/London: W.W Norton & Co, 2013), 64‑79.

Tom Gunning, « Animation and Alienation: Bergson’s Critique of the Cinématographe and the Paradox of Mechanical Motion », The Moving Image 14, no 1 (2014): 1‑9, doi:10.5749/movingimage.14.1.0001.

This essay tries to reclaim the importance of the “moving image” for film studies and especially for the study of animation. Though the currently influential film theory of Giles Deleuze uses the concept of the “movement-image,” this must not be confused with the moving image, which I define as the actual mechanical creation of the appearance of the movement of people or things on which cinema and animation are both based. For Deleuze, the movement-image only enters into cinema when a higher level of integration is involved, primarily through the editing of shots. Although Deleuze criticizes philosopher Henri Bergson's seeming condemnation of the false movement of cinema, he nonetheless seems to endorse this negative assessment of the appearance of motion that the cinema manages. I trace Bergson's suspicion of cinematic motion to his deep aversion to the mechanical (as in his essay “On Laughter”). In contrast, I claim that cinema generally and animation specifically demonstrate a synthesis of mechanical apparatuses with human perception. Rather than limiting or destroying our sense of time and motion, the moving image expands it. I relate this to philosopher Gilbert Simondon's view of the human dimension of our interaction with machines.

Tom Gunning, « Where do Colors Go at Night? », dans Color and the Moving Image : History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive, par Simon Brown, Sarah Street et Liz Watkins (New-York: Routledge, 2013), 81‑92.